Perm University Herald. Juridical Sciences. 2017. Issue 3 (37)

Title: THE CONDORCET PARADOXES AND THEIR SOLUTION
Authors:

D. M. Khudoley,
Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation

dmitry-hudoley@
yandex.ru

ORCID: 0000-0001-5870-1537 ResearcherID: E-3184-2016
Статьи автора в БД «Scopus» и «Web of Science»:      

10.17072/1995-4190-2016-33-258-267

Requisites: Khudoley D. M. Paradoksy Kondorse i ikh reshenie [The Condorcet Paradoxes and Their Solution] Vestnik Permskogo Universiteta. Juridicheskie Nauki – Perm University Herald. Juridical Sciences. 2017. Issue 37. Pp. 288–302. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.17072/1995-4190-2017-37-288-302
DOI: 10.17072/1995-4190-2017-37-288-302
Annotation:

Introduction: the article analyzes the Condorcet paradoxes and considers the ways of their possible solution. Purpose: to identify the fairest electoral system for elections in single- and multi-member electoral districts. Methods: general scientific (dialectic, analysis, synthesis, abstracting, specification) along with specific scientific (formal-legal, comparative law, technical-legal) research methods were used. Results: most of current electoral systems do not meet the Condorcet criterion. The absolute majority and plurality electoral systems based on categorical voting can in some cases lead to unreasonable voting results. Most preferential systems do not meet this criterion either. There are several techniques able to resolve the first Condorcet paradox positively, among which the Shulze, Tideman, Copeland, and Kemeny-Young methods are worth mentioning. Some scientists find Marcus Shulze’s algorithm beneficial compared to the
others. Many countries use this method for intraparty voting and also e-voting on the Internet (e. g., curators of the Wikipedia and some other projects are elected in this way). This approach, however, is unable to resolve the Condorcet paradoxes entirely; moreover, it gives rise to some other ones. Unfortunately, nowadays in Russia preferential systems cannot be applied due to some peculiarities of the electorate’s mentality, procedures for vote counting and determination of the election results. Conclusions: the Condorcet paradoxes do not appear in the countries with true two-party or pseudo-two-party systems. At presidential elections such states successfully practice the two-round majoritarian system with the absolute majority. On the contrary, in true multi-party states the use of preferential systems (the Shulze method, etc.) is rather advantageous.

Keywords: electoral law; electoral system; classification of electoral systems; problem of public choice; majoritarian systems; preferential systems; semi-proportional systems
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