Issue 2 (20) 2013

Otradnova APPLICATION OF GENERAL LEGAL PRESUMPTIONS IN THE CIVIL MECHANISM OF THE DELICTUAL OBLIGATIONS REGULATION (THROUGH THE EXAMPLE OF THE UKRAINE)

APPLICATION OF GENERAL LEGAL PRESUMPTIONS IN THE CIVIL MECHANISM OF THE DELICTUAL OBLIGATIONS REGULATION (THROUGH THE EXAMPLE OF THE UKRAINE)

O.A. Otradnova

Kiev National University n.a. Taras Shevtchenko
64/13, Vladimirskaya st., Kiev, Ukraine, 01601
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

General thesis about legal presumptions in tort obligations according to Ukrainian law are scrutinized in the article. Author analyzes an etymology of term “presumption”, using achievements of scientists, specialized in theory of law, civil law and civil procedure. A general conclusion of the article is that legal presumption is a hypothesis about a fact which has legal significance. An importance of legal presumptions in tort obligations is also analyzed in the article. Presumptions are used for the burden of proof and help to achieve just verdicts.

There are different classifications of legal presumptions which are used in law. One of them is a differentiation for general presumptions, sphere presumptions and special presumptions. General presumptions are used in different civil relations. They just have some specialties in personal non-material relations, property, obligational, inheritance relations etc. General presumptions of tort obligations are a presumption of knowledge of legal act, a presumption of legality of legal act, a presumption of mental health. Sphere presumptions are used in some spheres of law. In civil law there are such sphere presumptions as a presumption of good faith, presumption of authorship etc. Special presumptions are used in concrete civil relations. For tort obligations they are a presumption of guilt and a presumption of illegality of harm cause.

Three general presumptions which are used in tort obligations are examined in the article. First is a presumption of knowledge of legal acts. This presumption is used in any tort cases. Second is a presumption of legality of legal act. Courts use this presumption in cases when material and moral harm is caused by acts of state bodies, state officials or municipal officials. And third is a presumption of mental health. All people are considered healthy till their mental illness is proved.


Keywords: general presumptions; presumption of knowledge of legal act; presumption of legality of legal act; presumption of mental health

 

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