Perm University Herald. Juridical Sciences. 2020. Issue 2 (48)


V. V. Akinfieva, Perm State University

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
ORCID: 0000-0002-1536-3715
ResearcherID: F-3330-2017
Articles of «Scopus» & «Web of Science»:       ---

S. G. Vorontsov, Perm State University

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
ORCID: 0000-0003-0184-7468
ResearcherID: K-7286-2016
Articles of «Scopus» & «Web of Science»:       DOI: 10.17072/1995-4190-2016-34-402-412
DOI: 10.17072/1995-4190-2015-3-15-23
Requisites: Akinfieva V. V., Vorontsov S. G. Publichnoe, chastnoe, tsivil'noe i grazhdanskoe pravo: soderzhanie ponyatiy v drevnerimskikh i sovremennykh doktrinal'nykh istochnikakh [Public, Private, Civil Law, and Jus Civile: Content of the Concepts in Ancient Roman and Modern Doctrinal Sources]. Vestnik Permskogo universiteta. Juridicheskie nauki – Perm University Herald. Juridical Sciences. 2020. Issue 48. Pp. 226–247. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.17072/1995-4190-2020-48-226-247
DOI: 10.17072/1995-4190-2020-48-226-247

Introduction: thetheory of legal duality originated from works of ancient Roman jurists. Since the Digest of Justinian appeared, the law has traditionally been divided into public and private by numerous generations of Ulpian’s followers. However, modern interpretation of legal duality and the related categories sometimes differs from that of ancient jurists, which can indicate either distortion of the original meaning or its complete loss. This fact brings about the necessity to recover the original content of the concepts. One of the most effective ways to solve such problems is the verification method, that is comparison of messages with the given etalon parameters. Widely used in the theory of communication, this method can be equally applied in legal science. In the present study, in order to reveal discrepancies in the interpretations, the text of the Digest of Justinian, used as an etalon, will be compared to the understanding of legal duality by modern lawyers. Purpose: to determine the true meaning of the concepts of public law, private law, civil law and jus civile through comparing modern interpretation of these categories with that they had in ancient, mostly Roman, law. Results: the study has revealed a significant number of major discrepancies between the modern theory of legal duality and the meanings initially carried by its categories. Distortions were revealed in the understanding of all the key concepts: public law, private law, civil law, and jus civile; jus naturale legal consciousness was found to be replaced with legal consciousness of another type. Conclusions: public law of Ancient Rome in its original meaning has no equals in any modern law, including Russian jurisprudence. According to the famous Russian jurist I. M. Pokrovsky, ancient Roman public law is law created by the god; it could be characterized as a phenomenon of transcendental origin (with Rome, Roman community being perceived as the gods). Thus, through the prism of the Digest, all the modern written law is just private law, or, more specifically, jus civile, and there is no reasonable ground to name it public, let alone associate it with the Ulpian’s criterion.

Keywords: public and private law; jus civile; Ulpian's criterion; Digest of Justinian; civil law
  download the full-version article
References: 1. Bartoshek M. Rimskoe pravo: (Ponya-tiya, terminy, opredeleniya): Per. s cheshsk. [Ro¬man Law: (Concepts, Terms, Definitions): transl. from Czech]. Moscow, 1989. 448 p. (In Russ.).
2. Vasil'ev V. V. Grazhdanskoe pravo v sisteme: pravo chastnoe-pravo publichnoe [Civil Law in the System of 'Private Law-Public Law']. Pravo i gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika – Law and State: The Theory and Practice. 2013. Issue 12(108). Pp. 32–36. (In Russ.).
3. Vorontsov S. G. K voprosu o probleme effektivnosti pravovogo regulirovaniya v so¬vre-men¬noy Rossii [On the Issue of Legal Regulation Efficiency in Modern Russia]. Vestnik Permskogo universiteta. Juridicheskie nauki – Perm University Herald. Juridical Sciences. 2012. Issue 3. Pp. 16–22. (In Russ.).
4. Vorontsov S. G. Model' kommunikatsii G. D. Lassuella kak element metodologii tsivilis-ticheskikh issledovaniy [The Communication Model of H. D. Lasswell as an Element of Methodology of Civil Researches]. Metodo¬lo-gicheskie problemy tsivilisticheskikh issledovaniy: Sbornik nauchnykh statey [Methodological Problems of the Civil Researches: Collection of Scientific Articles]. 2019. Pp. 414–431. (In Russ.).
5. Golubtsov V. G. Sovershenstvovanie pravovogo regulirovaniya otnosheniy v sfere gosudarstvenno-chastnogo partnerstva na sovremennom etape [Improving the Legal Regulation of Relations in the Sphere of Public-Private Partnership at the Present Stage]. Vestnik Permskogo universiteta. Yuridicheskie nauki. – Perm University Herald. Juridical Sciences. 2014. Issue 1. Pp. 179–188. (In Russ.).
6. Golubtsov V. G. Sochetanie publichnykh i chastnykh nachal v regulirovanii veshchnykh otnosheniy s uchastiem gosudarstva. 2-e izd. [Combination of Public and Private Principles in the Regulation of Property Relations with Participation of the State. 2nd ed.]. St. Petersburg, 2005. 249 p. (In Russ.).
7. Grazhdanskoe pravo: uchebnik. V 2 t. / Pod red. B. M. Gongalo [Civil Law: Textbook. In 2 vols.; ed. by B. M. Gongalo]. Moscow, 2016. Vol. 1. 511 p. (In Russ.).
8. Grazhdanskoe ulozhenie Germanii = Deutsches Burgerliches Gesetzbuch mit Einfuhrungsgesetz: vvod. Zakon k Grazhd. Ulozheniyu; per. s nem./ [V. Bergmann vved., sost.]; nauch. redaktory A.L. Makovskiy [i dr.].
2-e izd., dop. [German Civil Code = Deutsches Bür¬gerliches Gesetzbuch mit Einführungsgesetz: Intro¬ductory Law to Civil Code; transl. from Germ.; comp. by V. Bergmann; ed. by A. L. Makovskiy et al. 2nd ed., enlarged]. Moscow, 2006. Vol. VIII. 816 p. (In Russ.).
9. Digesty Yustiniana / per. s lat.; otv. red. L. L. Kofanov [The Digest of Justinian; transl. from Latin; ed. by L.L. Kofanov]. Moscow, 2002. 584 p. (In Russ.).
10. Ioffe O. S. Izbrannye trudy po grazh-danskomu pravu: iz istorii tsivilisticheskoy mysli. Grazhdanskoe pravootnoshenie. Kritika teorii «khozyaystvennogo prava». 2-e izd., ispr. [Selected Works on Civil Law: from the History of Civil Thought. Civil Legal Relationship. Criticism of the Theory of Economic Law. 2nd ed., revised]. Moscow, 2003. 782 p. (In Russ.).
11. Kashanina T. V. Chastnoe pravo v strukture prava [Private Law in the Structure of Law]. Leningradskiy yuridicheskiy zhurnal – Leningrad Law Journal. 2007. Issue 1(7). Pp. 20–24. (In Russ.).
12. Komissarova E. G., Kuznetsova O. A. K voprosu o vnutrennem stroenii sovremennogo chastnogo prava [On the Internal Structure of Modern Private Law]. Vestnik Permskogo universiteta. Juridicheskie nauki – Perm University Herald. Juridical Sciences. 2018. Issue 4(42). Pp. 644–663. DOI: 10.17072/1995-4190-2018-42-644-663. (In Russ.).
13. Kofanov L. L. Rimskoe pravo: uchebnoe posobie [Roman Law: Study Guide]. Moscow, 2019. 274 p. (In Russ.).
14. Kuznetsov M. N. Ponyatie «chastnoe» v mezhdunarodnom chastnom prave [The Notion of 'Private' in Private International Law]. Vestnik Permskogo universiteta. Juridicheskie nauki – Perm University Herald. Juridical Sciences. 2014. Issue 2(24). Pp. 234–242. (In Russ.).
15. Lenin V. I. O zadachakh Narkomyusta v usloviyakh novoy ekonomicheskoy politiki [On the Tasks of the People's Commissariat for Justice under the New Economic Policy]. Polnoe sobranie sochineniy. Izdanie pyatoe [Complete Works. Fifth edition]. Moscow, 1970. Vol. 44. (In Russ.).
16. Makeev V. V., Golovko A. G. Chastnoe pravo Drevnego Rima: uchebnoe posobie. (2-e izd.) [Private Law of Ancient Rome: Textbook. (2nd ed.)]. Rostov-on-Don, 2002. 256 p. (In Russ.).
17. Meyer D. I. Izbrannye trudy: v 2 t. / vstupit. slovo d-ra yurid. nauk, prof P. V. Kra-sheninnikova [Selected Works: in 2 vols.; prefaced by P. V. Krasheninnikov]. Moscow, 2019. Vol. 1. 848 p. (In Russ.).
18. Novitskiy I. B. Osnovy rimskogo grazhdanskogo prava [Basics of Roman Civil Law]. Moscow, 1972. 296 p. (In Russ.).
19. Plato. Dialogi / per. s drevnegrech.; sost., red. i avtor vstupit. stat'i A. F. Losev; avtor primech. A. A. Takho-Godi [Dialogues; transl. from Ancient Greek; ed. by A. F. Losev; notes by A.A. Takho-Godi]. Moscow, 1998. 607 p. (In Russ.).
20. Plato. Zakony / per. s drevnegrech.; obshch. red. A. F. Loseva, V. A. Asmusa, A. A. Takho-Godi [Laws; transl. from Ancient Greek; ed. by A. F. Losev, V. A. Asmus, A. A. Takho-Godi]. Moscow, 1999. 832 p. (In Russ.).
21. Plutarch. Sravnitel'nye zhizneopisaniya. Traktaty i dialogi / per. s drevnegrech. Sost. S. Ave¬rintseva, vstup. stat'ya A. Loseva, komment. A. Sto¬lyarova [Comparative Biographies. Treatises and Dialogues; transl. from Ancient Greek; comp. by S. Averintseva; prefaced by A. Losev; com-ment. by A. Stolyarov]. Moscow, 1997. 672 p. (In Russ.).
22. Pozdnyakov S. N. Platon i Drevne-egipetskie predstavleniya o bessmertii dushi: k probleme vliyaniya [Plato and Ancient Egyptian Ideas on the Immortality of the Soul: on the Problem of Influence]. Vestnik Russkoy khristian¬skoy gumanitarnoy akademii – Herald of the Russian Christian Academy for the Humanities. 2010. Vol. 11, Issue 3. Pp. 46–55. (In Russ.).
23. Pokrovskiy I. A. Istoriya rimskogo prava [History of Roman Law]. Minsk, 2002. 528 p. (In Russ.).
24. Smorchkov A. M. Avgurskiy kontrol' nad auspitsiyami magistratov: teoriya i real'nost' [The Augural Control over the Magistrate's Auspices: Theory and Reality]. Antichnyy mir i arkheologiya – Ancient World and Archaeology. 2006. Issue 12. Pp. 157–171. (In Russ.).
25. Shershenevich G. F. Izbrannoe: V 6 t. [Selected Works: In 6 vols.]. Prefaced, comp. by P. V. Krasheninnikov. Moscow, 2016. Vol 4. 752 p. (In Russ.).
26. Engels F. O razlozhenii feodalizma i vozniknovenii natsional'nykh gosudarstv [On the Decay of Feudalism and the Emergence of National States]. Sochineniya. 2-e izd. / Marks K., Engels F. [Works. 2nd ed.; K. Marx, F. Engels]. Vol. 21. (In Russ.).
27. Fernandez Arroyo D. P., Mbengue M. M. Public and Private International Law in Inter¬na¬tional Courts and Tribunals: Evidence of an Ines¬capable Interaction. Columbia Journal of Trans¬national Law. 2018. Vol. 56, Issue 4. Pp. 797–854. (In Eng.).
28. Barnes J. An Expanding Frontier of Administrative Law: The Public Life of Private Actors. European Public Law. 2018. Vol. 24, Issue 3. Pp. 595–612. (In Eng.).
29. Bentley N. War on Two Fronts: Harmo-nising the Public and Private Enforcement of Australia's Corporate Disclosure Laws. Company and Securities Law Journal. 2016. Vol. 34, Issue 8. Pp. 567–598. (In Eng.).
30. Brekoulakis S., Devaney M. Public-Private Arbitration and the Public Interest under English Law. Modern Law Review. 2017. Vol. 80, Issue 1. Pp. 22–56. (In Eng.).
31. Cherednychenko O. O. Rediscovering the Public/Private Divide in EU Private Law. European Law Journal. 2019. DOI: 10.1111/eulj.12351. (In Eng.).
32. Darmon E., Le Texier T. Private or Pu-blic Law Enforcement? The Case of Digital Anti-Piracy Policies with Illegal Non-Monitored Behaviors. Review of Network Economics. 2016. Vol. 15, Issue 4. Pp. 169–210. (In Eng.).
33. Eliantonio M. Private Actors, Public Authorities and the Relevance of Public Law in the Process of European Standardization. European Public Law. 2018. Vol. 24, Issue 3. Pp. 473–489. (In Eng.).
34. Erkan G. H., Avar A. A. Clash of Public Law and Private Law as Results of Protocol – Governed Planning: The 'Izmir Basmane World Trade Center' Case. Planlama-Planning. 2017. Vol. 27, Issue 2. Pp. 152–168. (In Eng.).
35. Flikschuh K. A Regime of Equal Private Freedom? Individual Rights and Public Law in Ripstein's Force and Freedom. Law and Practical Reason. 2017. Pp. 55–74. (In Eng.).
36. Hattab M. K. The Doctrine of Legitimate Expectation & Proportionality: A Public Law Principle Adopted into the Private Law of Employment. Liverpool Law Review. 2018. Vol. 39, Issue 3. Pp. 239–264. (In Eng.).
37. Henriksson L. Private Enforcement of Public Law – An Inconsistent Approach to Remedies? Swedish Studies in European Law. 2019. Vol. 12. Pp. 79–95. (In Eng.).
38. Himsworth Ch. Transplanting Irratio¬na-lity from Public to Private Law: Braganza v BP Ship¬ping Ltd. Edinburgh Law Review. 2019. Vol. 23, Issue 1. Pp. 1–21. (In Eng.).
39. Krajewska A. Transnational Health Law beyond the Private/Public Divide: The Case of Reproductive Rights. Journal of Law and Society. 2018. Vol. 45. Pp. 220–244. (In Eng.).
40. Kysar D. A. The Public Life of Private Law: Tort Law as a Risk Regulation Mechanism. European Journal of Risk Regulation. 2018. Vol. 9, Issue 1. Pp. 48–65. (In Eng.).
41. Mallik Ch. Public-Private Discord in the Land Acquisition Law: Insights from Rajarhat in India. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography. 2018. Vol. 39, Issue 3. Pp. 401–420. (In Eng.).
42. Mankowski P. Linkages and Boundaries in Private and Public International Law. Rabels Zeitschrift für Ausländisches und Internationales Privatrecht. 2019. Vol. 83, Issue 3. Pp. 706–712. (In Eng.).
43. Morris R. Public Law and Private Initiative: The Wider Context of Local Legislation. Local Government, Local Legislation: Municipal Initiative in Parliament from 1858–1872. 2017. Pp. 109–139. (In Eng.).
44. Otis G. Aboriginal Rights at the Crossroads of Public and Private Law: The Case of the Extractive Industry. Cahiers de Droit. 2019. Vol. 60, Issue 2. Pp. 451–490. (In Eng.).
45. Pavesi P. Descartes and the Laws of Charity. Public and Private Law in the Letter to Voetius. Revista de Filosofia-Madrid. 2019. Vol. 44, Issue 2. Pp. 193–209. (In Eng.).
46. Seckel E. Die Gestaltungsrechte des bürgerlichen Rechts, Festgabe fur Koch. 1903. 205 p. (In Germ.).
47. Smith L. J. Private Law, Public Law, Metalaw and Public Policy in Space: A Liber Amicorum in Honor of Ernst Fasan. Air & Space Law. 2017. Vol. 42, Issue 1. Pp. 101–103. (In Eng.).
48. Sokolowski P. Die Mandatbürgerschaft nach römischen und gemeinen Recht. Halle, 1891. (In Germ.).
49. Spickermann W. Public and Private in Ancient Mediterranean Law and Religion. Historische Zeitschrift. 2017. Vol. 304, Issue 2. Pp. 465–466. (In Eng.).
50. Wan W. Y., Chen Ch., Goo S. H. Public and Private Enforcement of Corporate and Securities Laws: An Empirical Comparison of Hong Kong and Singapore. European Business Organization Law Review. 2019. Vol. 20, Issue 2. Pp. 319–361. (In Eng.).
51. Wils W. P. J. Private Enforcement of EU Antitrust Law and Its Relationship with Public Enforcement: Past, Present and Future. World Competition. 2017. Vol. 40, Issue 1. Pp. 3–45. (In Eng.).
Received: 10.10.2019
Financing: ---




The Perm State University
614990, Perm, street Bukireva, 15
+7 (342) 2 396 275
ISSN 1995-4190 ISSN (eng.) 2618-8104
ISSN (online) 2658-7106
DOI 10.17072/1995-4190
(с) Editorial board, 2010
The magazine is registered in Federal Agency of supervision in sphere of communication and mass communications.
The certificate on registration of mass media ПИ № ФС77-33087 from September, 5th, 2008
The certificate on reregistration of mass media ПИ № ФС77-53189 from Marth, 14th, 2013

The magazine is included in List ВАК and in the Russian index of scientific citing

The founder & Publisher: the State educational institution of the higher training
“The Perm State University”.
Publishing 4 times a year