Issue 1 (19) 2013



E.R. Iskhakov

Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of internal affairs of Russia
2, Muksinova st., Ufa, 450103
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


This article about legislation of Ekaterina The Second period. These documents include rules and obligations for police in sanitary and hygiene activities in Russian Empire. The staff of police had duties and responsibilities for providing, regulating and controlling measures of satisfied sanitary and hygienic conditions of people’s life and work. They made actions for preventing and fighting against very dangerous contagious inflectional diseases like “plaque”. The part of documents is concerned the epidemic of plaque in Moscow in 1771–1772 years. The first document according fighting against “plaque” was document about preventive actions counteract infection disease that occurred in Poland province (part of the Russian Empire) near Turkey frontier by 9 January 1771. The activity for police were: to count patients and deceased people, to make announcement from authorities about infection, to transport patients from their houses to hospitals, to burn clothes of patients, to isolate sick people in their homes, to disinfect rooms, to control special rules for selling in shops (and selling alcohol too). In the next documents were such activities as to make funeral who died from plaque, to investigate and search patients and died people, to explain rules of behavior for Moscow citizens. One Act by 12 October 1771 established for police the deal to catch and punish people who robs houses where were patients or died people. A few law Acts concerned police activity to search, collect and analyze information about infection people because people didn’t talk about their diseases to authority officially. Controlling of quarantine around the Moscow was obligation for police in Acts issued in 1771 and 1772 years. The Moscow police finished its anti-epidemic activity in 1775. Police of Saint-Petersburg and Moscow cared about people during cold weather making special places for heating and preventive frost-bit. The Ekaterina the Second began to organize country-side police (Act issued by 19 December 1774) where were a lot of obligations for policemen to control and act sanitary and hygiene measures at the villages. The main Act issued by Ekaterina the Second was “Administration for conducting states in Russian Empire” oked 7 November 1775. Some points and parts in this Act reflected obligations for police to make sanitary and hygiene activity. “The Police Act” was produced in 8 April 1782 where was regulation police activity including deals about health of the people.

 Keywords: legislation activity of the Ekaterine The Second period, police of Russian Empire; law regulation of sanitary and hygienic conditions; police medical activity

Bibliograficheskij spisok

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  2. Zhiljaeva S.K. Istorija prizrenija sirot v Rossii kak gosudarstvennaja problema v XVIII veke // Istorija gosudarstva i prava. 2010. №2. S. 13–19.

  3. Krasil'nikov S.V. Sel'skaja policija i ee mesto v sisteme organov mestnogo samoupravlenija vo vtoroj polovine XVIII veka // Istorija gosudarstva i prava. 2009. №2. S. 22–26.

  4. Polnoe sobranie zakonov Rossijskoj Imperii. Vypusk pervyj. SPb., 1830. T. 19. 1083 s.

  5. Rossijskoe zakonodatel'stvo X–XX vekov: v 9 t. T. 5: Zakonodatel'stvo perioda rascveta absoljutizma. M., 1987. 528 s.




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ISSN 1995-4190 ISSN (eng.) 2618-8104
ISSN (online) 2658-7106
DOI 10.17072/1995-4190
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