Issue 3 (13) 2011



D.A. Goryachkina

Tyumen State Academy of World Economy, Management and Law
102, 30 Let Pobedie st., Tyumen, 625051

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article covers the problem of the legal nature of such category as risk in theory of civil law. Nowadays property relationships are characterized unforeseen and probability in achievement purposes. It is caused not only subjective, but also objective factors. The category “risk” is an objective factor. Some obligation, types of juridical persons, different ways of guarantee obligations, relations of representation, agreement relations are connected with risk. Participants of property relationships try to minimize it. The author gives a brief analysis of conceptions, which are brought to light on quintessence of category “risk” and correlation subjective and objective elements in this category. It is created three conceptions of interpretation a category “risk”. These are a subjective conception, an objective conception and a conception, which is contained subjective and objective conceptions. These conceptions are developed by Russian civilists. The termin “risk” in different articles of a Civil Code of Russian Federation is investigated. A legal definition of such category as risk is absent in modern civil legislation. A termin risk is filled with different contents in articles of a Civil Code of Russian Federation. It is not only make difficult understanding of quintessence of this category, but also it is lacked uniform enforce articles, which is contained a category “risk”. For example, article 212 of a Civil Code of Russian Federation, which is used a termin risk of accidental destruction or accidental damage of property. It is revealed fundamental features of risky circumstances. A first feature is uncertainty. It is possibility of coming favourable or unfavourable property consequences for participants of relationships because of their actions or inactivity. Secondly, burden of risk is always bear on participant, who is determined by legislator.

On the one hand, a possibility of risk is set in law and law is striven for its justified and rational distribution between participants. On the other hand, risk is created by legislator, because legal constructions of some civil institutions stimulate risky situations. For instance, an agreement of rent, relations of representation.

It is considered the last legislative novation, which is fixed a termin “risk” and which is based on subjective interpretation of this termin. Apart from that, it is taken relation between category “civil responsibility” and category “risk”.

Keywords: risk; unforeseen; probability; a Civil Code of Russian Federation; unfavourable property consequences; subjective conception; objective conception; minimizing risk; to bear the burden of risk; civil responsibility


Bibliograficheskij spisok

  1. Alekseev S.S. Obwie teoreticheskie problemy sistemy sovetskogo prava. M.: Gosjurizdat, 1961. 185 s.
  2. Al'gin A.P. Novatorstvo, iniciativa, risk. L.: Lenizdat, 1987. 63 s.
  3. Arhipov D.A. Opyt teorii riska v dogovornom objazatel'stve // Aktual'nye problemy grazhdanskogo prava. M.: Norma, 2005. Vyp. 9. S. 358–406.
  4. Arjamov A.A. Obwaja teorija riska: juridicheskij, jekonomicheskij i psihologicheskij analiz. M.: RAP; Volters Kluver, 2010. 208 s.
  5. Beljaev S.O. Risk kak politiko-pravovoj institut (teoretiko-metodologicheskij analiz) / pod red. P.P. Baranova. Rostov n/D.: Izd-vo JuFU, 2007. 80 s.
  6. Spornye voprosy teorii juridicheskoj otvetstvennosti // Sov. gosudarstvo i pravo. 1973. №4. S. 34.Bratus' S.N.
  7. Grazhdanskoe zakonodatel'stvo. Stat'i. Kommentarii. Praktika / pod red. A.G. Di­denko. Almaty: Raritet, 2011. Vyp. 37. 560 s.
  8. Kabyshev O.A. Predprinimatel'skij risk: Pravovye voprosy [Jelektronnyj resurs]: Tjumen. obl. nauch. b-ka: dis....kand. jurid. nauk. URL: http://crm01-ext/TONBExt/loader.aspx (data obrawenija: 20.06.2011).
  9. Kopylov V.A. Risk v predprinimatel'skoj dejatel'nosti [Jelektronnyj resurs]: Tjumen. obl. nauch. b-ka: avtoref. dis. ... kand. jurid. nauk. URL: http://crm01-ext/TONBExt/loader.aspx (data obrawenija: 20.06.2011).
  10. Krasavchikov O.A. Juridicheskie fakty v sovetskom grazhdanskom prave. Kategorii nauki grazhdanskogo prava // Izbr. tr. M.: Statut, 2005. 494 s.
  11. Lapteva I.V. Grazhdansko-pravovoe regulirovanie strahovanija predprinimatel'­skogo riska [Jelektronnyj resurs]: Tjumen. obl. nauch. b-ka: avtoref. dis. ... kand. jurid. nauk. URL: http://crm01-ext/TONBExt/loader.aspx (data obrawenija: 20.06.2011).
  12. Magaziner Ja.M. Obwaja teorija prava na osnove sovetskogo zakonodatel'stva // Pravovedenie. 1999. №1. S. 130–142.
  13. Malein N.S. Grazhdansko-pravovoe polozhenie lichnosti. M.: Nauka, 1975. 399 s.
  14. Ojgenziht V.A. Problema «riska» v grazhdanskom prave. Dushanbe: IRFON, 1972. 224 s.
  15. Ojgenziht V.A. Volja i voleiz#javlenie (Ocherki teorii, filosofii i psihologii prava). Dushanbe: IRFON, 1983. S. 16–24.
  16. Povarenkov A.Ju. Risk v predprinima­tel'skoj dejatel'nosti // Problemy zawity sub#ektivnyh grazhdanskih prav: cb. nauch. tr. / pod red. V.V. Butneva. Jaroslavl': Izd-vo gos. un-ta, 2001. 322 s.
  17. Povarenkov A.Ju. Risk v trudovom prave i prave social'nogo obespechenija [Jelektronnyj resurs]: Tjumen. obl. nauch. b-ka: dis/ ... kand. jurid. nauk. URL: http://crm01-ext/TONBExt/loader.aspx (data obrawenija: 20.06.2011).
  18. Pometihina S.I. K voprosu o ponjatii riska v grazhdanskom prave // Chernye dyry v rossijskom zakonodatel'stve. 2009. №4. S. 77–79.
  19. Revina S.N. K voprosu o riske v sfere pravovogo regulirovanija rynochnyh otnoshenij // Pravovaja politika i pravovaja zhizn'. 2009. №4. S. 91–95.
  20. Rossijskoe predprinimatel'skoe pravo: uchebnik / otv. red. I.V. Ershova, G.D. Otnjukova. M.: Prospekt, 2010. 1072 s.
  21. Sadikov O.N. Ubytki v grazhdanskom prave Rossijskoj Federacii. M.: Statut, 2009. 221 s.
  22. Tanaev V.M. Ponjatie «risk» v Grazh­danskom kodekse Rossijskoj Federacii // Aktual'nye problemy grazhdanskogo prava / pod red. S.S. Alekseeva; Ros. shkola chastnogo prava, Ural. otd-nie. M.: Statut, 2000. 318 s.
  23. Trudovoj kodeks Rossijskoj Federacii: Feder. zakon Ros. Federacii ot 30 dek. 2001 g. №197-FZ // Sobr. zakonodatel'stva Ros. Federacii. 2002. № 1 (ch. 1), st. 3.




The Perm State University
614990, Perm, street Bukireva, 15
+7 (342) 2 396 275, +7 963 012 6422
ISSN 1995-4190
(с) Editorial board, 2010
Publishing 4 times a year
The magazine is registered in Federal Agency of supervision in sphere of communication and mass communications.
The certificate on registration of mass media ПИ № ФС77-33087 from September, 5th, 2008
The certificate on reregistration of mass media ПИ № ФС77-53189 from Marth, 14th, 2013

The magazine is included in List ВАК and in РИНЦ (the Russian index of scientific citing)

The founder: the State educational institution of the higher vocational training
“The Perm State University”.