Issue 3 (13) 2011

ABOUT THE CATEGORY “RISK” IN THEORY OF CIVIL LAW

ABOUT THE CATEGORY “RISK” IN THEORY OF CIVIL LAW

D.A. Goryachkina

Tyumen State Academy of World Economy, Management and Law
102, 30 Let Pobedie st., Tyumen, 625051

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The article covers the problem of the legal nature of such category as risk in theory of civil law. Nowadays property relationships are characterized unforeseen and probability in achievement purposes. It is caused not only subjective, but also objective factors. The category “risk” is an objective factor. Some obligation, types of juridical persons, different ways of guarantee obligations, relations of representation, agreement relations are connected with risk. Participants of property relationships try to minimize it. The author gives a brief analysis of conceptions, which are brought to light on quintessence of category “risk” and correlation subjective and objective elements in this category. It is created three conceptions of interpretation a category “risk”. These are a subjective conception, an objective conception and a conception, which is contained subjective and objective conceptions. These conceptions are developed by Russian civilists. The termin “risk” in different articles of a Civil Code of Russian Federation is investigated. A legal definition of such category as risk is absent in modern civil legislation. A termin risk is filled with different contents in articles of a Civil Code of Russian Federation. It is not only make difficult understanding of quintessence of this category, but also it is lacked uniform enforce articles, which is contained a category “risk”. For example, article 212 of a Civil Code of Russian Federation, which is used a termin risk of accidental destruction or accidental damage of property. It is revealed fundamental features of risky circumstances. A first feature is uncertainty. It is possibility of coming favourable or unfavourable property consequences for participants of relationships because of their actions or inactivity. Secondly, burden of risk is always bear on participant, who is determined by legislator.

On the one hand, a possibility of risk is set in law and law is striven for its justified and rational distribution between participants. On the other hand, risk is created by legislator, because legal constructions of some civil institutions stimulate risky situations. For instance, an agreement of rent, relations of representation.

It is considered the last legislative novation, which is fixed a termin “risk” and which is based on subjective interpretation of this termin. Apart from that, it is taken relation between category “civil responsibility” and category “risk”.


Keywords: risk; unforeseen; probability; a Civil Code of Russian Federation; unfavourable property consequences; subjective conception; objective conception; minimizing risk; to bear the burden of risk; civil responsibility

 

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