Issue 4 (14) 2011

15 ndividual aspect of natural obligations, to run out of the unclaimed aleatory contracts

Individual aspect of natural obligations, to run out of the unclaimed aleatory contracts

T.I. Sultanova

Russian and Tajik (Slavonic) University
30, M. Tursun-Zade st., Dushanbe, Republic of Tajikistan, 734025

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The current article studies the problem of natural obligations of non-claiming aleatory contracts, particularly contracts of gaming and wagering. The author substantiates the position that the absence of claim defense for games and betting is not a ground to deny natural obligations under them. The article further corroborates that the authorization and enforceability of protection are different legal phenomena and failure of categorical assertions of some scientists who believe that the behavior of individuals can be regulated only by the rule of law. A person could be forced to act in certain ways, not only through state coercion. Natural obligations attest that also informal social sanctions possess with such power that in seperate cases have more constraint effect than legal sanctions. As an example of this is natural obligations based in usual right of Tajiks ,and also natural obligations appearing from gambling, which feasibilty is effective even in juridical protection absence. The author search an answer to the question in his research, why all times the performance of debtor’s obligations on hazard was the dept of honour and conscience even then, when as a stake used not only estate, but even alive people. Player could use as a stake his own wife, children, sister, slavers and even own part of his body. In the case of losing the payment of dept the absence of juridical protection of obligations from gamblings entirely did not stopped.

The explanation of this do not take down barely to fears and savings of deptor about using crimial method of dept penalty from creditor side. At historical literature devoted to hazard theme, particularly, in card game there are more facts confirming that card dept was the subject of obligation payment not in the case with fear before the creditor, but because its cancellation considerred as an inique criteria of personal honor in the society. The author search the answer the mentioned question in around legal sciences and comes to the point that the sense of honour socially is in its essence. Primarily, before to have the meaning of moral internal requirements of particular person, it is formed as an universal moral requirements and expection in the fom of social norms in the society. Individual assessing card dept as dept of honour –it is the social-psychological arrangement formed by social norm by societyitself, and life itself. Such arrangement is supported by informal sanctions in the form of social conviction and censure behaviour declining from expectation of society. Informal sanctions here play functional role, whereas their applications encourage the consciousness confine of that , that is justifiable and allowable behaviour and perform the role of factors provocating people to confirm its commitment to establishing social discipline. The pursuit of person belonging to that or other social group will develop ability in him to adapt to this social environment. Person is disposed to lead himself in accordance to the expectation of society, therefore in seperate cases social idea can serve as a more strong point in his behaviour than legal norms. Here why, – the author think,– the absence of dept support in the game of juridical protection in majority it is not seen in their return.

The paper concludes that the system of obligations not confined to the claim, liabilities, and along with them, there are also obligations to non-claiming protection. Although due to the lack of legal protection they are deprived of the main characteristic feature of all obligations, they still have the force of obligation because entail certain legal consequences. These implications are that voluntarily paid on such obligation can not be demanded back as money had and received. This asset does not allow them to file a claim, not only the lender, but also the debtor, as provided for failure to protect obligations as a whole and not any of its elements (active or passive).


Keywords: natural obligation; civil obligation; claim protection; sanction; games and gambles; aleatory contracts; social norms

 

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