V.V. Abramov

Ural State Legal Academy
21, Komsomolskay st., Ekaterinburg, 620137

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The article raises questions about the nature and legal nature of the legal categories "risk" and "safety", revealed their role in the system of legal phenomena. The author analyzes the role and importance of the definition "safety" in the conceptual device of civil law of Russia. Gives a detailed critical review of the current Russian civil legislation, application practices, legal literature on the specified problematic.

Process of formation of the modern domestic concept of risk in civil law is considered. Existing theories of risk are analyzed; issues of risk and civil law relationship are touched in the article. Risk is considered as property of a subject of civil law which is reflected on the civil law regulation method. The author finds out continuity and updating elements, reveals laws of evolution of the theory of risk in the civil law, and defines ways of the decision of debatable questions. The risk theory allows by logic operations over concepts to transform the general principles to concrete forms of regulation of legal processes.

In article the accessory of risk and safety to base categories of civil law also is proved. It has important theoretical value as defines character of practical activities on realization of legal regulation of real estate of the raised risk within the limits of society safety, and also life and health of citizens, including in the civil-law ways. Safety in modern conditions gets standard registration in the current legislation and it isn't as abstract-absolute category any more. Simultaneously safety starts to be considered as the socially-legal phenomenon having the dual nature. On the one hand, safety is the basic condition of maintenance of the vital interests of the person, and also national interests of the state and a society in various spheres (economic, political, social, etc.). On the other hand, safety is opposed in some cases to freedom as its maintenance is reached, including, and by means of restriction of the subjective rights.

The dialectics of investigated concepts expressed in the categorial device of civil law becomes complicated if to consider it within the dialectics of social and cultural development of a society. It is area absolutely unexplored, but extremely perspective from the point of view of the legal theory. The theoretical base created thus is checked further by practice and forms the basis of practical offers and recommendations about perfection of mechanisms of civil-law regulation in a modern society.

Keywords: legal category; risk; safety; civil law

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