Issue 1 (19) 2013

Markelova RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF INNOVATION IN THE PENAL SYSTEM

RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF INNOVATION IN THE PENAL SYSTEM

O.N. Markelova

Training Center of the Headquarters of the Federal Penal Service in Perm Territory
125, Karpinskogo st., Perm, 614012
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

In the formation and development of innovative activity in the penal system of Russia we can distinguish five stages: 1) the 10th – the second half of the 18th cent., 2) the second half of the 18th cent. – the beginning of the 19th cent., 3) the 19th – the beginning of the 20th century, 4) the Soviet period, and 5) the modern period. The proposed periodization is based on the periods of reorganization of the correctional institutions and bodies, since the transformations in the respective years were directly reflected in the innovation processes.

Stage 1 (the 10th – the second half of the 18th century). At the beginning of formation of a single centralized Russian state, legal pressure on deviant behavior of an individual wasn’t a special instrument of domestic policy. This was caused by the weakness of the state, absence of comprehensive whole system of governmental authorities, public policy in general and punitive policies in particular.

Stage 2 (the second half of the 18th cent. – the beginning of the 19th cent.). The reign of Catherine II was marked by a plenty of changes in the country, including the field of execution of punishment. Foreign advanced ideas concerning execution of criminal punishment, treatment of offenders and criminals began to penetrate in the penal system management.

Stage 3 (the 19th – the beginning of the 20th century). As a result of prison reform in 1879 and other innovative organizational and legal measures, an acceptable, consistent, reflecting the existed objective and subjective conditions management system of execution of punishment was formed in the state.

Stage 4 (the Soviet period). In the 1918–1930 years progressive experience allowed improving considerably the penal system activity was actively accumulated. In the 1930–1950s all innovation activities in correctional facilities was actually ceased. The period of the 1970s was the most productive in the organization to identify and disseminate best practices, implementation of scientific research into practice.

Stage 5 (the current stage). At the moment the search of novel approaches in this field continues. Scientists, penal officers, authorities work on innovative activity systematization, its integrating, aimed at the adoption of new effective management decisions. This approach is justified because the system operates in a stable mode and consistently develops.


Keywords: innovations; the penal system; history

 

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